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Repost: ឬ​ថា​កង់​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ​នៃ​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​កម្ពុជា​អាមេរិក​វិល​មក​ដល់​កន្លែង​ដើម ថ្ងៃចន្ទ 18 ខែ​កុម្ភៈ 2019

Posted by សុភ័ក្ត្រ in នយោបាយ, បរិយាយ​ថ្ងៃ​នេះ, ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ, អំពីស្រុកខ្មែរ.
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កកន ៖ អត្ថបទ​ខាង​ក្រោម​នេះ ជា​អត្ថបទ​ចាស់ ដែល​ត្រូវ​បាន​ដាក់​កាល​ពី​ថ្ងៃ​សុក្រ ទី​១៥ ខែ​កញ្ញា ឆ្នាំ​២០១៧​។ មូល​ហេតុ​ដែល​ស្រែ​ខ្មុក​ដាក់​ប្រកាស​នេះ​ជា​ថ្មី​​ម្ដង​ទៀត ដោយ​សារ​ហេតុ​ប៉ុន្មាន​ថ្ងៃ​កន្លង​មក​នេះ ស្ថានការណ៍​នៃ​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​រវាង​ខ្មែរ និង​អាមេរិក​នេះ ហាក់​បី​ដូច​ជា​លោតឡើង​មក​វិញ បន្ទាប់​ពី​ប្រកាស​មួយ​ក្នុង​ហ្វេសបុគ​ផ្លូវ​ការ​របស់​ស្ថាន​ទូត​អាមេរិក​ប្រចាំ​កម្ពុជា និង​ប្រតិកម្ម​មក​វិញ​នៃ​ក្រសួង​ការ​បរទេស នៃ​កម្ពុជា​….

ពេញ​មួយ​ដើម​ខែ​កញ្ញា​ (​២០១៧​) នេះ​ ទំនាក់​ទំនង​ការ​ទូត​រវាង​សហ​រដ្ឋ​អាមេរិក និង​ព្រះ​រាជាណាចក្រ​កម្ពុជា ហាក់​មិន​បាន​ធូរ​ស្រាល​ឡើយ ផ្ទុយ​ទៅ​វិញ​ កម្ដៅ​ហាក់​មាន​ការ​តាន​តឹង​ឡើង​មួយ​កម្រិត​ម្ដង​ៗ​គួរ​​ជា​ទី​ព្រួយ​បារម្ភ​។ ឬ​ថា​កង់​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ​នៃ​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​ខ្មែរ និង​អាមេរិក វិល​មក​ដល់​ទី​ដើម ឬ​ថា​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​នេះ​នឹង​ដល់​ទី​បញ្ចប់​។

បើ​ទោះ​បី​ជា​ពី​មុន​មក​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​កម្ពុជា​អាមេរិក​មិន​មាន​ភាព​តាន​តឹង​ដូច​ពេល​នេះ​ក្ដី ក៏​ប៉ុន្តែ​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​នៃ​ប្រទេស​ទាំង​ពីរ​នេះ​ក៏​មិន​មាន​ភាព​រលូន​ដូច​បណ្ដា​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​ជាមួយ​ប្រទេស​ដទៃ​ទៀត (​មួយ​ចំនួន​) ឡើយ​។ បញ្ហា​ចេះ​តែ​មាន​ឥត​ហូរ​ហែ​ ជា​ពិសេស​ការ​ដែល​កម្ពុជា​ជំពាក់​ប្រាក់​អាមេរិក​នា​សម័យ​សង្គ្រាម ដែល​កម្ពុជា [ត្រូវ​តែ​សង] អាមេរិក​។ ពិត​មែន​ហើយ អាមេរិក​មិន​មែន​ចេះ​តែ​យល់​ស្រប​អ្វី​លំ​ៗ​យក​តែ​ល្អ​មើល​នោះ​ទេ​។ បើ​ទោះ​បី​ជា​មាន​អ្នក​ខ្លះ ឬ​ប្រទេស​ខ្លះ​មិន​ចូល​ចិត្ដ​ក្ដី ក៏​ប៉ុន្តែ​មនុស្ស ឬ​ប្រទេស​ទាំង​នោះ មិន​អាច​ជៀស​ឆ្ងាយ​ពី​អាមេរិក​បាន​ទេ​។ នេះ​ជា​តថ​ភាព​ដែល​ត្រូវ​ទទួល​ស្គាល់​ ហើយ​ថា​ល្បែង «​មាន​អញ​អត់​អ្ហែង​» ពិត​ជា​មិន​ងាយ​លេង​នោះ​ទេ ជាមួយ​អាមេរិក​​។

បន្ទាប់​ពី​បញ្ហា​នយោបាយ​ដ៏​តាន​តឹង​កើត​មាន​ឡើង​នៅ​ស្រុក​ខ្មែរ​យ៉ាង​ប្រកៀក​ប្រកិត​គ្នា​ដូច​គ្រាប់​ពោត​នា​ដើម​ខែ​កញ្ញា ឆ្នាំ​២០១៧ នេះ​មក​ ជា​ពិសេស​ការ​ចោទ​ប្រកាន់​ពី​ទំនាក់​ទំនង អ្វី​ដែល​គេ​ហៅ​ថា «​បដិវត្តន៍​ពណ៌​» ទៅ​នឹង​សហ​រដ្ឋ​អាមេរិក​នោះ អាមេរិក​បាន​សម្ដែង​ការ​ព្រួយ​បារម្ភ​ពី​វោហារ​សព្ទ​​ [យ៉ាង​គួរ​ឲ្យ​ខ្លាច] ពី​សំណាក់​អ្នក​ដឹក​នាំ​ខ្មែរ ហើយ​ក៏​បាន​ធ្វើ​សេចក្ដី​ថ្លែង​ការណ៍​យ៉ាង​វែង​អន្លាយ​មួយ​តាម​រយៈ​ឯក​អគ្គ​រដ្ឋ​ទូត​របស់​ខ្លួន​នៅ​កម្ពុជា ស្ដី​អំពី​បរិយាកាស​នយោបាយ​នៅ​កម្ពុជា កាល​ពី​ថ្ងៃ​អង្គារ (​១២ កញ្ញា ២០១៧​) កន្លង​មក​នេះ​។

ភ្លាម​រំពេច នា​ថ្ងៃ​នេះ លោក​នាយក​រដ្ឋ​មន្ត្រី​កម្ពុជា បាន​បញ្ចេញ​ចំណាត់​ការ​យ៉ាង​ច្រើន ដែល​ត្រូវ​បាន​គេ​មើល​ឃើញ​ថា រឹត​តែ​ធ្វើ​ឲ្យ​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​កម្ពុជា អាមេរិក រឹត​តែ​តាន​តឹង​ឡើង​ដល់​កម្រិត​អតិ​បរមា​។ ការ​ប្រកាស​ផ្អាក​កិច្ច​សហ​ប្រតិបត្តិការ​រុក​រក​ឆ្អឹង​ទាហាន​អាមេរិក ដែល​បាត់​បង់​ជីវិត​នៅ​ក្នុង​សង្គ្រាម​នៅ​កម្ពុជា កាល​ពី​ទសវត្សរ៍​ឆ្នាំ​៧០​, ការ​ប្រកាស​ឲ្យ​ដក​​ភ្នាក់​ងារ​ភីស​ខ័រ (United States Peace Corps Cambodia) សហ​រដ្ឋ​អាមេរិក​នៅ​កម្ពុជា, ការ​ប្រកាស​ឲ្យ​ប្រជា​ជន (​ខ្មែរ​) ក្រោក​​ឈរ​ឡើង​ប្រកាន់​គោល​​នយោបាយ​ជាតិ​និយម​ប្រឆាំង​ការ​ជ្រៀត​ជ្រែក​ពី​បរទេស (​អាមេរិក​)​…​។ល។ សុទ្ធ​សឹង​ត្រូវ​បាន​គេ​មើល​ឃើញ​ថា​ជា​ការ​វិវត្ត​ថយ​ក្រោយ​នៃ​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​ការ​ទូត​រវាង​កម្ពុជា និង​សហ​រដ្ឋ​អាមេរិក​ ឬ​អាច​ថា​ជា​ចំណុច​ចាប់​ផ្ដើម​ឈាន​ទៅ​រក​អវសាន​នៃ​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​ការ​ទូត​រវាង​សហ​រដ្ឋ​អាមេរិក និង​កម្ពុជា​។

អ្វី​ៗ​សុទ្ធ​តែ​អាច​កើត​ឡើង​បាន​ទាំង​អស់​។ កម្ពុជា​ កាល​ពី​អតីត​ធ្លាប់​បាន​ផ្ដាច់​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​ការ​ទូត​ជាមួយ​សហ​រដ្ឋ​អាមេរិក​ម្ដង​រួច​មក​ហើយ​។ ហើយ​បើ​ពិនិត្យ​មើល​ស្ថាន​ភាព​បច្ចុប្បន្ន​នេះ​វា​គ្មាន​អ្វី​អះ​អាង​ថា​នឹង​មិន​អាច​កើត​ឡើង​ជា​លើក​ទី​២​នោះ​ទេ​​។ ទោះ​បី​ជា​យ៉ាង​នេះ​ក្ដី ទេសៈ​កាលៈ​រវាង​ឆ្នាំ​២០១៧ និង​ទសវត្សរ៍​៦០ ទំនង​ជា​មិន​ដូច​គ្នា​ទេ ជា​ពិសេស​បរិយាកាស​​ប្រទេស​នៅ​ក្នុង​តំបន់​។ ហេតុ​ដូច​នេះ​កម្ពុជា​គួរ​ដើរ​យ៉ាង​ប្រុង​ប្រយ័ត្ន ជា​ពិសេស​ភាព​ប្រថុយ​ប្រថាន​ក្នុង​ការ​ធ្វើ​ឲ្យ​សភាព​ការណ៍​នៃ​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​ការ​ទូត​មាន​ភាព​តាន​តឹង​ជាង​នេះ ឬ​ឈាន​ទៅ​រក​ការ​ផ្ដាច់​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​​ការ​ទូត​រវាង​ប្រទេស​ទាំង​ពីរ​​នោះ​៕

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អាន​ផង​ដែរ​៖
១. ស្ថាន​ទូត​អាមេរិក ប្រចាំ​កម្ពុជា ចេញ​សេចក្ដី​ថ្លែង​ការណ៍​ស្ដី​អំពី​បច្ចុប្បន្ន​ភាព​បរិយាកាស​នយោបាយ​នៅ​កម្ពុជា
២. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​៖ Visa Restrictions on Individuals Responsible for Undermining Cambodian Democracy
៣. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​៖ សេចក្ដី​ប្រកាស​របស់​អ្នក​នាំ​ពាក្យ​នៃ​ក្រសួង​ការ​បរទេស និង​សហ​ប្រតិបត្តិការ​អន្តរជាតិ នៃ​ព្រះ​រាជាណាចក្រ​កម្ពុជា
៤. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​៖ សេចក្តីប្រកាស​របស់​រដ្ឋ​មន្រ្តីទទួល​បន្ទុក​ផ្នែក​សារ​ព័ត៌មាន ស្តី​អំពី​ការ​កាត់​បន្ថយជំនួយ​ដល់​រដ្ឋាភិបាល​កម្ពុជា

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ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ Cambodia: EU launches procedure to temporarily suspend trade preferences ថ្ងៃចន្ទ 11 ខែ​កុម្ភៈ 2019

Posted by សុភ័ក្ត្រ in ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ, អំពីស្រុកខ្មែរ, English.
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European Commission – Press release

Cambodia: EU launches procedure to temporarily suspend trade preferences

Brussels, 11 February 2019

The EU has today started the process that could lead to the temporary suspension of Cambodia’s preferential access to the EU market under the Everything But Arms (EBA) trade scheme. EBA preferences can be removed if beneficiary countries fail to respect core human rights and labour rights.

Launching the temporary withdrawal procedure does not entail an immediate removal of tariff preferences, which would be the option of last resort. Instead, it kicks off a period of intensive monitoring and engagement. The aim of the Commission’s action remains to improve the situation for the people on the ground.

High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Vice President of the European Commission Federica Mogherini said: “Over the last eighteen months, we have seen the deterioration of democracy, respect for human rights and the rule of law in Cambodia. In February 2018, the EU Foreign Affairs Ministers made clear how seriously the EU views these developments. In recent months, the Cambodian authorities have taken a number of positive steps, including the release of political figures, civil society activists and journalists and addressing some of the restrictions on civil society and trade union activities.However, without more conclusive action from the government, the situation on the ground calls Cambodia’s participation in the EBA scheme into question. As the European Union, we are committed to a partnership with Cambodia that delivers for the Cambodian people. Our support for democracy and human rights in the country is at the heart of this partnership.”

EU Commissioner for Trade Cecilia Malmström said: “It should be clear that today’s move is neither a final decision nor the end of the process. But the clock is now officially ticking and we need to see real action soon. We now go into a monitoring and evaluation process in which we are ready to engage fully with the Cambodian authorities and work with them to find a way forward. When we say that the EU’s trade policy is based on values, these are not just empty words. We are proud to be one of the world’s most open markets for least developed countries and the evidence shows that exporting to the EU Single Market can give a huge boost to their economies. Nevertheless, in return we ask that these countries respect certain core principles. Our engagement with the situation in Cambodia has led us to conclude that there are severe deficiencies when it comes to human rights and labour rights in Cambodia that the government needs to tackle if it wants to keep its country’s privileged access to our market.”

Following a period of enhanced engagement, including a fact-finding mission to Cambodia in July 2018 and subsequent bilateral meetings at the highest level, the Commission has concluded that there is evidence of serious and systematic violations of core human rights and labour rights in Cambodia, in particular of the rights to political participation as well as of the freedoms of assembly, expression and association. These findings add to the longstanding EU concerns about the lack of workers’ rights and disputes linked to economic land concessions in the country.

Today’s decision will be published in the EU Official Journal on 12 February, kicking off a process that aims to arrive at a situation in which Cambodia is in line with its obligations under the core UN and ILO Conventions:

– a six-month period of intensive monitoring and engagement with the Cambodian authorities;

– followed by another three-month period for the EU to produce a report based on the findings;

– after a total of twelve months, the Commission will conclude the procedure with a final decision on whether or not to withdraw tariff preferences; it is also at this stage that the Commission will decide the scope and duration of the withdrawal. Any withdrawal would come into effect after a further six-month period.

High Representative/Vice-President Mogherini and Commissioner Malmström launched the internal process to initiate this procedure on 4 October 2018. Member States gave their approval to the Commission proposal to launch the withdrawal procedure at the end of January 2019.

Background

The Everything But Arms arrangement is one arm of the EU’s Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP), which allows vulnerable developing countries to pay fewer or no duties on exports to the EU, giving them vital access to the EU market and contributing to their growth. The EBA scheme unilaterally grants duty-free and quota-free access to the European Union for all products (except arms and ammunition) for the world’s Least Developed Countries, as defined by the United Nations. The GSP Regulation provides that trade preferences may be suspended in case of “serious and systematic violation of principles” laid down in the human rights and labour rights Conventions listed in Annex VIII of the Regulation.

Exports of textiles and footwear, prepared foodstuffs and vegetable products (rice) and bicycles represented 97% of Cambodia’s overall exports to the EU in 2018. Out of the total exports of € 4.9bn, 99% (€ 4.8bn) were eligible to EBA preferential duties.

For More Information

MEMO: EU triggers procedure to temporarily suspend trade preferences for Cambodia

Trade relations with Cambodia

Generalised Scheme of Preferences

http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-19-882_en.htm

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អាន​ផង​ដែរ​៖
១. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ សេចក្ដី​ថ្លែង​ការណ៍​របស់​រាជ​រដ្ឋាភិបាល​កម្ពុជា​ឆ្លើយ​តប​នឹង​ការ​​សម្រេច​ចិត្ត​របស់​គណៈ​កម្មការ​អឺរ៉ុប​​ក្នុង​ការ​បើក​ដំណើរ​ការ​នីតិ​វិធី​ផ្លូវ​ការ​​សម្រាប់​ការ​ដក​ជា​បណ្ដោះ​អាសន្ន​​​នូវ​ប្រព័ន្ធ​អនុ​គ្រោះ​ពន្ធ​ «​គ្រប់​មុខ​ទំនិញ​លើក​លែង​តែ​គ្រឿង​​សព្វា​វុធ (EBA)» ពី​កម្ពុជា
២. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ សេចក្ដី​ប្រកាស​ព័ត៌មាន​អំពី​សេចក្ដី​សម្រេច​របស់​គណៈ​កម្មការ​អឺរ៉ុប​ប្រកាស​អំពី​ដំណើរ​ការ​នីតិ​វិធី​ឈាន​ទៅ​ពិនិត្យ​លទ្ធភាព​ព្យួរ​ជា​បណ្ដោះ​អាសន្ន​នូវ​ប្រព័ន្ធ​អនុ​គ្រោះ​ពន្ធ​ក្រោម​កម្ម​វិធី «​គ្រប់​មុខ​ទំនិញ​លើក​លែង​តែ​សព្វា​វុធ (EBA)»

“พระแก้วมรกต” จากวัดพระแก้วฯในพระราชวังหลวง พนมเปญ กับมูลค่าวัสดุในพระวิหาร ថ្ងៃអង្គារ 29 ខែមករា 2019

Posted by សុភ័ក្ត្រ in អំពីស្រុកខ្មែរ, ภาษาไทย.
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วัดพระแก้วมรกต ในพระบรมราชวังจตุมุขมงคล กัมพูชา (ภาพจากหนังสือ “เขมรสมัยหลังพระนคร”)

พระบรมราชวังจตุมุขมงคล กรุงพนมเปญ มีสถานที่สำคัญหลายแห่ง ในบรรดารายชื่อนี้มี “วัดพระแก้วมรกต” หรือ “วัดอุโบสถรตนาราม” เป็นวัดที่ตั้งอยู่ในพระราชวัง ซึ่งมีพระพุทธรูป “พระแก้วมรกต” ประดิษฐานบนบุษบก

เมืองพนมเปญ (หรือชื่อเก่าว่า “เมืองจตุมุข”) เป็นเมืองสำคัญทางยุทธศาสตร์ของกัมพูชา สมัยก่อนมีเจ้าพญายาตและกษัตริย์องค์ต่อมาใช้เมืองนี้เป็นราชธานี ขณะที่พระราชวังจตุมุขมงคลนี้สร้างตั้งแต่ พ.ศ. 2408 ในรัชกาลสมเด็จพระเจ้านโรดิมบรมรามเทวาวตาร (ครองราชย์ พ.ศ. 2403-2447) และปรับปรุงเปลี่ยนหลายครั้งในเวลาต่อมา ผศ.ดร. ศานติ ภักดีคำ อธิบายในหนังสือ “เขมรสมัยหลังพระนคร” ว่า ปีนั้นเป็นปีที่สมเด็จพระนโรดมเริ่มเสด็จมาประทับที่พระราชวังพัก กรุงพนมเปญ

อีกหนึ่งสิ่งก่อสร้างสำคัญในพระบรมราชวังจตุมุขมงคล คือ “วัดพระแก้วมรกต” หรือ “วัดอุโบสถรตนาราม” ผศ.ดร. ศานติ บรรยายว่า เป็นวัดในพระราชวังหลวงเช่นเดียวกับวัดพระศรีสรรเพชญ์ วัดในพระราชวังหลวงของกรุงศรีอยุธยา หรือวัดพระศรีรัตนศาสดารามในพระบรมมหาราชวัง กรุงเทพฯ

การออกแบบแผนผังวัดพระแก้วมรกตเป็นฝีมือของออกญาเทพนิมิต (รส) มีสถาปนิกชาวฝรั่งเศสชื่อ Alavigne ดูแลความถูกต้องในการสร้าง สถาปนิกชาวฝรั่งเศสนาม Andrilleux และช่างเขมรเป็นผู้ก่อสร้างและประดับตกแต่งจนแล้วเสร็จสมโภช เมื่อ พ.ศ. 2446 ผศ.ดร. ศานติ อ้างอิงข้อมูลจากฝั่งกัมพูชาว่า คิดเป็นเงินทั้งหมดห้าแสนเรียล

เมื่อถึงสมัยสมเด็จพระนโรดมสีหนุ วัดพระแก้วมรกตถูกบูรณะ เมื่อปี 2505 – 2513 โดยปกติแล้ว วัดในพระบรมราชวังแห่งนี้ไม่มีพระสงฆ์จำพรรษา แต่มีเฉพาะช่วงที่สมเด็จพระนโรดมสีหนุทรงผนวช พระองค์ประทับจำพรรษา 1 พรรษา

สิ่งก่อสร้างภายในบริเวณวัดล้วนมีความสำคัญเฉพาะตัว อาทิ พระวิหารพระแก้วมรกต เป็นที่ประดิษฐานพระแก้วมรกต พระวิหารสร้างขึ้นในสมัยสมเด็จพระนโรดมบรมรามเทวาวตาร แรกเริ่มสร้างจากไม้และอิฐ แต่เมื่อมีการบูรณะในภายหลังจึงเริ่มปรับเปลี่ยนหลายครั้งโดยรักษารูปแบบทางสถาปัตยกรรมเดิมไว้

องค์ประกอบที่น่าสนใจในวัดนี้ไม่ใช่มีแค่เชิงโครงสร้าง ผศ.ดร.ศานติ อธิบายรายละเอียดว่า พื้นของพระวิหารปูเสื่อที่ทำจากเงินบริสุทธิ์ 5,329 แผ่น แต่ละแผ่นมีน้ำหนัก 1,125 กิโลกรัม ประดับหินอ่อนนำเข้าจากอิตาลี รวมแล้วเป็นเงินทั้งหมด 20 ล้านเรียล

ขณะที่พระพุทธรูป “พระแก้วมรกต” ที่ประดิษฐานบนบุษบก ผู้เชี่ยวชาญด้านวัฒนธรรมอธิบายว่า หล่อขึ้นจากแก้วคริสตัลสีเขียวจากฝรั่งเศส โดยอ้างอิงจากข้อมูลใน “นิราศนครวัด” พระนิพนธ์ในกรมพระยาดำรงราชานุภาพ ข้อความตอนหนึ่งว่า

“กลางพระอุโบสถ มีฐานชุกชีตั้งบุษบกรองพระแก้วที่ห้างปักกะราต์ฝรั่งเศส ข้อนี้ทราบมานานแล้ว มาได้ความรู้เพิ่มเติมเมื่อเห็นตัวจริงว่าตั้งใจจะจำลองให้เหมือนพระแก้วมรกตที่ในกรุงเทพฯ สมเด็จพระนโรดมเห็นจะให้ไปสืบและวัดมาดู ได้ขนาดเท่ากัน แต่รูปสัณฐานนั้นผิดกันห่างไกล สีแก้วมรกตที่ฝรั่งหล่อเขียวใสเป็นอย่างขวดเขียวสี่เหลี่ยม ที่มักใช้ใส่น้ำอบกันแต่ก่อน เครื่องประดับก็ทำแต่ทองครอบพระเกตุมาลา และติดรัศมีต่อขึ้นไปสองข้างบุษบก ตั้งลับแลแบ่งปันที่เป็นข้างหน้าในอย่างวัดพระศรีรัตนศาสดารามในกรุงเทพฯ…”

ในพระวิหารพระแก้วมรกตยังมีพระพุทธรูป “พระชินรังสีราชิกนโรดม” ฉลองพระองค์สมเด็จพระนโรดมบรมรามเทวาวตาร ผศ.ดร. ศานติ อธิบายว่า สร้างขึ้นเมื่อ พ.ศ. 2447 โดยสมเด็จพระศรีสวัสดิ์ (สีสุวัตถิ์) ตามพระราชดำรัสของสมเด็จพระนโรดมบรมรามเทวาวตาร ช่วงก่อนพระองค์ทิวงคต

พระพุทธรูปองค์นี้สร้างจากทองคำ 90 กิโลกรัมนับรวมทั้งฐานและฉัตร ประดับเพชรพลอย 2,086 เม็ด เพชรเม็ดใหญ่ที่สุดอยู่ที่มงกุฎมีขนาด 25 มิลลิเมตร ซึ่งกรมพระยาดำรงราชานุภาพทรงบรรยายว่า แต่งเครื่องเพชรพลอยอย่างใหม่ ฝีมือฝรั่ง ซึ่งเป็นของสมเด็จพระนโรดมทรงพระอุทิศไว้ ฝีมือสร้างงดงาม



อ้างอิง:

ศานติ ภักดีคำ. เขมรสมัยหลังพระนคร. กรุงเทพฯ : มติชน, 2556

https://www.silpa-mag.com/art/article_26843?fbclid=IwAR10cIzeBQXnsmzinsTTCDZGTbm3ODxmj9MzLCT1qoaAE7xE5YEjHL_OhDk

Cambodia Faces Next Trade-Sanctions Move by the European Union ថ្ងៃពុធ 23 ខែមករា 2019

Posted by សុភ័ក្ត្រ in អំពីស្រុកខ្មែរ, English.
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The European Union moved closer to imposing trade sanctions against Cambodia as a result of alleged human-rights violations in the country.

The European Commission in Brussels has asked EU national governments to give the green light by Jan. 29 for suspending a policy that lets Cambodia export all goods except weapons duty-free and quota-free to the bloc, according to two officials familiar with the matter. They spoke on the condition of anonymity because the deliberations are private.

Any go-ahead from EU national capitals would still leave a decision by the commission, the bloc’s executive arm, 12 months away. At stake is Cambodia’s place in the EU’s “Everything But Arms” initiative, the most generous part of the bloc’s Generalized Scheme of Preferences for poor countries around the world.

The EU’s Tariff Threats Against Asia’s Autocrats Risk Backfiring

The EU is trying to prod changes in the political behavior of strongman Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen while being wary of damaging the country’s economy, where a $5 billion garment industry employs 750,000 people and is the biggest exporter.

Hun Sen, who extended his 33-year rule last July when his party won a boycotted election, has so far struck a defiant tone with the European side.

The latest internal EU preparations to withdraw commercial benefits for Cambodia follow a Jan. 21 meeting between European Trade Commissioner Cecilia Malmstrom and Cambodian Foreign Minister Prak Sokhonn. The Everything But Arms — or EBA — accord featured in the talks.

“We discussed the EBA agreement and the possibility of a withdrawal of the tariff preferences,” Malmstrom said in a Twitter post after the meeting in the Belgian capital. “Reiterated our concerns on democracy, human rights and rule of law. The EU continues to keep the path of dialog open.”

The EU debate over revoking general trade benefits for Cambodia is separate from a decision by the bloc last week to impose tariffs on Cambodian rice for three years as a result of a surge in imports deemed to have hurt European rice producers.

— With assistance by Nikos Chrysoloras

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2019-01-22/cambodia-faces-next-trade-sanctions-move-by-the-european-union

ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ សេចក្ដី​ថ្លែង​ការណ៍ ថ្ងៃ​ព្រហស្បតិ៍ 17 ខែមករា 2019

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50023992_2317510345145011_3111758626914566144_n

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អាន​ផង​ដែរ​៖
១. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ On Myanmar and Cambodia
២. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ EU trade action on Cambodia looms after unsuccessful talks
៣. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ EU plays hardball with Cambodian hardman
៤. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ គណៈប្រតិភូសភាកម្ពុជាសម្ដែងការខកចិត្ដយ៉ាងខ្លាំងចំពោះសហភាពអន្ដរសភា​ដែលមាន​លក្ខណៈ​លម្អៀង​មក​លើកម្ពុជា
៥. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ លទ្ធផលស្ដីពីការចូលរួមរបស់គណៈប្រតិភូសភាកម្ពុជាក្នុងមហាសន្និបាតសហភាពអន្ដរសភាលើកទី១៣៩ នៅប្រទេសស្វីស
៦. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ សេចក្តីថ្លែងការណ៍ ឆ្លើយតបទៅនឹងសេចក្តីប្រកាសរបស់សហភាពអឺរ៉ុប ស្តីពីការអនុគ្រោះពន្ធគ្រប់មុខទំនិញលើកលែងសព្វាវុធ និងស្តីពីកម្ពុជា

ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ សេចក្តីថ្លែងការណ៍ ឆ្លើយតបនឹងសេចក្តីប្រកាសព័ត៌មានរបស់សហភាពអឺរ៉ុប ស្តីពីវិធានការការពារទីផ្សារដោយសហភាពអឺរ៉ុប មកលើអង្ករ (Indica Rice) នាំចេញពីកម្ពុជា ថ្ងៃ​ព្រហស្បតិ៍ 17 ខែមករា 2019

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ឯកសារ​ពាក់​ព័ន្ធ ៖
១. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ EU imposes safeguard measures on rice from Cambodia and Myanmar

ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ EU imposes safeguard measures on rice from Cambodia and Myanmar ថ្ងៃពុធ 16 ខែមករា 2019

Posted by សុភ័ក្ត្រ in ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ, អំពីស្រុកខ្មែរ, English.
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European Commission – Press release

EU imposes safeguard measures on rice from Cambodia and Myanmar

Brussels, 16 January 2019

An investigation has confirmed a significant increase of imports of Indica rice from Cambodia and Myanmar into the European Union that has caused economic damage to European producers.

The European Commission has therefore decided today to re-introduce import duties that will be steadily reduced over a period of three years.

According to the Commission’s decision, to be published in tomorrow’s Official Journal, as of 18 January the European Union will reinstate the normal customs duty on this product of €175 per tonne in year one, progressively reducing it to €150 per tonne in year two, and €125 per tonne in year three.

During the investigation launched in March 2018, the Commission found that imports of Indica rice from both countries combined have increased by 89% in the past five rice-growing seasons. At the same time, the investigation found that the prices were substantially lower than those on the EU market and had actually decreased over the same period. This surge in low-price imports has caused serious difficulties for EU rice producers to the extent that their market share in the EU dropped substantially from 61% to 29%.

Cambodia and Myanmar are beneficiaries of the EU’s Everything But Arms (EBA) trade scheme, which unilaterally grants duty-and quota-free access to the world’s least developed countries (apart from arms and ammunition). This is one pillar of the EU’s Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP) tariff-reduction scheme for developing countries. Today’s action is being taken using the safeguards mechanism of the GSP Regulation.

Background

The initial request for trade safeguards on rice imports was tabled by the Italian government in February 2018 and supported by all other EU rice growing Member States (Spain, France, Portugal, Greece, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria). The Commission opened a formal investigation on 16 March 2018. The measures will be in place for three years.

The decision will be published in the EU’s Official Journal on 17 January and will enter into force the following day.

http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-19-427_en.htm

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ឯកសារ​ពាក់​ព័ន្ធ ៖
១. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ សេចក្តីថ្លែងការណ៍ ឆ្លើយតបនឹងសេចក្តីប្រកាសព័ត៌មានរបស់សហភាពអឺរ៉ុប ស្តីពីវិធានការការពារទីផ្សារដោយសហភាពអឺរ៉ុប មកលើអង្ករ (Indica Rice) នាំចេញពីកម្ពុជា 

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