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សិក្សា​៖ គួរ​រាប់​ឆ្នាំ​ថ្មី​ជាមួយ​នឹង​ចុល្ល​សករាជ ជំនួស​ឲ្យ​ពុទ្ធ​សករាជ ថ្ងៃអាទិត្យ 7 ខែ​មេសា 2019

Posted by សុភ័ក្ត្រ in ភាសា​មន, អំពីស្រុកខ្មែរ.
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កកន ៖ ប្រកាស​នេះ ស្រែ​ខ្មុក បាន​ដាក់​ម្ដង​រួច​មក​ហើយ​កាល​ពី​ឆ្នាំ​២០១៧ តែ​ដោយ​សារ​តែ​ឃើញ​ម្ដង​ជា​ពីរ​ដង​ឲ្យ​តែ​ដល់​រដូវ​ចូល​ឆ្នាំ​ខ្មែរ​នេះ​ម្ដង​ៗ ម្នាក់​ៗ​នាំ​គ្នា​ជជែក​មិន​ដាច់​ស្រេច​ពី​រឿង គួរ​ដាក់​ព.ស.​២៥៦២ ឬ​២៥៦៣។ ដើម្បី​ជា​គតិ ស្រែខ្មុក​សូម​លើក​ប្រកាស​នេះ​មក​ដាក់​ផ្សាយ​ម្ដង​ទៀត ដោយ​មាន​ការ​កែ​សម្រួល​ឲ្យ​ស្រប​តាម​បច្ចុប្បន្ន​ភាព​ផង​។

សម្រាប់​ប្រទេស​កម្ពុជា​យើង​ឲ្យ​មែន​ទែន​ទៅ​នា​បច្ចុប្បន្ន​នេះ​​ប្រើ​តែ​សករាជ​មួយ​ប៉ុណ្ណោះ​តាម​បែប​សាកល​ នោះ​គឺ​គ្រឹស្ត​សករាជ (គ.ស.​)​។ បន្ត​មក​ទៀត​តាម​បែប​សាសនា ហើយ​ដែល​ប្រជាជន​ខ្មែរ​តិច​តួច​ណាស់​​ប្រើ​ប្រាស់ និង​ដឹង​ឮ​អំពី​ពុទ្ធ​សករាជ (ព.ស.​) រាប់​ទាំង​សិស្ស​ និស្សិត និង​មន្ត្រី​រាជការ​មួយ​ចំនួន​ផង​​។ ប្រសិន​បើ​យើង​និយាយ​ដល់​សករាជ​ពីរ​ទៀត គឺ​ចុល្ល​សករាជ (​ច.ស.​) និង​មហា​សករាជ (​ម.ស.​) ​នោះ រឹត​តែ​គ្មាន​នរណា​ដឹង គ្មាន​នរណា​ស្គាល់​។

នៅ​ក្នុង​រដូវ​កាល​ចូល​ឆ្នាំ​ខ្មែរ​​នា​ខែ​មេសា​ម្ដង​ៗ តែង​តែ​​​មាន​ការ​ខ្វែង​គំនិត​គ្នា​អំពី​ការ​ប្រើ​ប្រាស់​ពុទ្ធ​សករាជ ជាក់​ស្ដែង​ដូច​ឆ្នាំ​នេះ​ក្ដី ​អ្នក​ខ្លះ​រាប់​ថា ពុទ្ធ​សករាជ​២៥៦៣ (កកន៖ នេះ​ទំនង​គេ​យល់​ថា​សល់​មិន​ដល់​មួយ​ខែ​ទៀត​ក៏​ចូល​ព.ស.​២៥៦៣​ហើយ ទើប​គេ​រាប់​យក​តែ​ម្ដង) ឯ​អ្នក​ខ្លះ​ទៀត​រាប់​ថា ២៥៦២ ដោយ​សម្អាង​ថា ពុទ្ធ​សករាជ​ចូល​ពិត​ប្រាកដ​នៅ​មួយ​ថ្ងៃ​ក្រោយ​បុណ្យ​វិសាខ​បូជា​ឯណុះ​( អំឡុង​ខែ​ឧសភា​)​។ ការ​សម្អាង​ហេតុ​ផល​រៀង​ៗ​ខ្លួន​នេះ​ក៏​ពិបាក​វែក​ញែក​រក​ខុស​ត្រូវ​ដែរ ដ្បិត​ការ​ចូល​ឆ្នាំ​ខ្មែរ និង​ការ​ប្រើ​ប្រាស់​ពុទ្ធ​សករាជ​មក​ភ្ជាប់​របស់​ខ្មែរ​រយៈ​ពេល​កន្លង​មក​នេះ​ទេ​តើហ៍​ដែល​មិន​ត្រឹម​ត្រូវ​នោះ ដោយ​មួយ​រាប់​តាម​សុរិយ​គតិ ឯ​មួយ​រាប់​តាម​ចន្ទ​គតិ​​។ ជា​ការ​ពិត​ស​ករាជ​ដែល​ត្រូវ​ភ្ជាប់​ជាមួយ​នឹង​ការ​ចូល​ឆ្នាំ​ខ្មែរ​នោះ គឺ​ចុល្ល​សករាជ​ឯណេះ​​វិញ​ទេ​។

នៅ​ក្នុង​វចនានុក្រម​ខ្មែរ លោក​បាន​ឲ្យ​និយម​ន័យ​ចុល្លសករាជ ដូច​ខាង​ក្រោម​នេះ​៖

ចុល្លសករាជ ចុល-ល៉ៈ សៈកៈរ៉ាច ឬ ស័កក្រាច បា. ( ន. ) (ចុល្ល + សក + រាជ) សករាជ​តូច ។ កាល​ដែល​តាំង​ចុល្លសករាជ​នៅ​ថ្ងៃ​ចន្ទ ១២ កើត ខែ​ចេត្រ ឆ្នាំ​កុរ​ឯកស័ក ពុទ្ធ​សករាជ ១១៨៣ (ម. ព. មហា​សករាជ និង សករាជ ផង) ។

បើ​ទោះ​បី​ជា​​ប្រភព​នៃ​ការ​តាំង​ចុល្ល​សករាជ​ពិត​ប្រាកដ​​នៅ​មាន​ភាព​ស្រពិច​ស្រពិល​នៅ​ឡើយ ដោយ​ឯកសារ​ខ្លះ​សម្អាង​ថា​នៅ​កម្ពុជា* ឯ​ឯកសារ​ខ្លះ​សម្អាង​ថា​នៅ​ភូមា​​ក្ដី ការ​នេះ​វា​មិន​មាន​​បញ្ហា​ចោទ​ទាក់​ទង​ទៅ​នឹង​ការ​រាប់​ចុល្ល​សករាជ​ទេ​។ នេះ​ក៏​ដោយ​សារ​ការ​ធ្វើ​បុណ្យ​ចូល​ឆ្នាំ​ខ្មែរ គឺ​ធ្វើ​ឡើង​តាម​សុរិយ​គតិ ហើយ​ការ​រាប់​ចុល្ល​សករាជ​នេះ​ក៏​ស្រប​គ្នា​នឹង​ពេល​ដែល​ព្រះ​អាទិត្យ​ចូល​ទៅ​កាន់​មេស​រាសី​ ហើយ​នឹង​ចាប់​រាប់​ឆ្នាំ​ថ្មី (​ចុល្ល​សករាជ​) នៅ​ថ្ងៃ​ទី​១៦ ខែ​មេសា (​ឬ​ជួន​កាល​ទី​១៧ ខែ​មេសា) នោះ​ឯង​។

មូល​ហេតុ​ដូច​នេះ​ហើយ​ការ​រាប់​ឆ្នាំ​ថ្មី​សម្រាប់​ប្រទេស​ខ្មែរ​យើង មិន​គួរ​រាប់​ជាមួយ​ព្រះ​ពុទ្ធ​សករាជ ដែល​ប្រើ​ប្រាស់​ប្រព័ន្ធ​ចន្ទ​គតិ​នោះ​ទេ វា​គួរ​តែ​ត្រូវ​រាប់​ជាមួយ​នឹង​​ចុល្ល​សករាជ ដែល​ដើរ​ស្រប​គ្នា​​យ៉ាង​ហោច​ណាស់​ពេញ​មួយ​ឆ្នាំ​ គឺ​៣៦៥​ថ្ងៃ​។ ហើយ​អ្វី​ដែល​ជា​សម្អាង​ពី​ភាព​ត្រឹម​ត្រូវ​ពិត​ប្រាកដ​នោះ​ទៀត នោះ​​គឺ​ការ​ភ្ជាប់​ស័ក ជាមួយ​នឹង​ការ​​រាប់​លំដាប់​ឆ្នាំ ពី​ឆ្នាំ​ទី​១ ដល់​ទី​១០ ដែល​ជា​ឆ្នាំ​នៃ​ចុល្ល​សករាជ​នេះ​ឯង​។ ហេតុ​ដូច​នេះ​ហើយ ដើម្បី​ជៀង​វាង​ការ​ខ្វែង​គំនិត​គ្នា​ក្នុង​ការ​ប្រើ​ប្រាស់​ពុទ្ធ​សករាជ​សម្រាប់​ឆ្នាំ​ថ្មី​​នោះ ប្រទេស​កម្ពុជា​យើង​គួរ​ងាក​មក​ប្រើ​ចុល្ល​សករាជ​វិញ​៕

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ស្លាក​សញ្ញា​សម្រាប់​អប​អរ​សាទរ​ឆ្នាំ​ថ្មី សម្រាប់​ឆ្នាំ​នេះ គួរ​សរសេរ​តាម​បែប​ខាង​លើ​នេះ​។ សូម​សង្កេត​មើល​ពី​លំដាប់​ស័ក (​ឯក​​ស័ក​) ដែល​ស្រប​គ្នា​នឹង​ឆ្នាំ​នៃ​ចុល្ល​សករាជ​គឺ ១ (​១៣៨១​)

*កកន៖ នៅ​ក្នុង​វចនានុក្រម​ខ្មែរ​លោក​ថា ព្រះ​បាទ​សម្ដេច​ព្រះ​បទុម​សុរិយ​វង្ស​បាន​តាំង​ចុល្ល​សករាជ ១ ក្នុង​កាល​ពុទ្ធ​សករាជ​១១៨៣ ប៉ុន្តែ​បើ​គិត​មើល​ទៅ បច្ចុប្បន្ន​នេះ គឺ​ព.ស.​២៥៦២ ឯ​ច.ស គឺ​១៣៨១ ហេតុ​ដូច​នេះ​ទេ ចុល្ល​សករាជ គួរ​តែ​ត្រូវ​បាន​តាំង​ឡើង​នៅ​ព.ស.​១១៨១​

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អាន​ផង​ដែរ​៖
១. ការ​ប្រើ​ប្រាស់​កាល​បរិច្ឆេទ​ចន្ទ​គតិ និង​វិបាក

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កកន ៖ អត្ថបទ​ខាង​ក្រោម​នេះ ជា​អត្ថបទ​ចាស់ ដែល​ត្រូវ​បាន​ដាក់​កាល​ពី​ថ្ងៃ​សុក្រ ទី​១៥ ខែ​កញ្ញា ឆ្នាំ​២០១៧​។ មូល​ហេតុ​ដែល​ស្រែ​ខ្មុក​ដាក់​ប្រកាស​នេះ​ជា​ថ្មី​​ម្ដង​ទៀត ដោយ​សារ​ហេតុ​ប៉ុន្មាន​ថ្ងៃ​កន្លង​មក​នេះ ស្ថានការណ៍​នៃ​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​រវាង​ខ្មែរ និង​អាមេរិក​នេះ ហាក់​បី​ដូច​ជា​លោតឡើង​មក​វិញ បន្ទាប់​ពី​ប្រកាស​មួយ​ក្នុង​ហ្វេសបុគ​ផ្លូវ​ការ​របស់​ស្ថាន​ទូត​អាមេរិក​ប្រចាំ​កម្ពុជា និង​ប្រតិកម្ម​មក​វិញ​នៃ​ក្រសួង​ការ​បរទេស នៃ​កម្ពុជា​….

ពេញ​មួយ​ដើម​ខែ​កញ្ញា​ (​២០១៧​) នេះ​ ទំនាក់​ទំនង​ការ​ទូត​រវាង​សហ​រដ្ឋ​អាមេរិក និង​ព្រះ​រាជាណាចក្រ​កម្ពុជា ហាក់​មិន​បាន​ធូរ​ស្រាល​ឡើយ ផ្ទុយ​ទៅ​វិញ​ កម្ដៅ​ហាក់​មាន​ការ​តាន​តឹង​ឡើង​មួយ​កម្រិត​ម្ដង​ៗ​គួរ​​ជា​ទី​ព្រួយ​បារម្ភ​។ ឬ​ថា​កង់​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ​នៃ​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​ខ្មែរ និង​អាមេរិក វិល​មក​ដល់​ទី​ដើម ឬ​ថា​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​នេះ​នឹង​ដល់​ទី​បញ្ចប់​។

បើ​ទោះ​បី​ជា​ពី​មុន​មក​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​កម្ពុជា​អាមេរិក​មិន​មាន​ភាព​តាន​តឹង​ដូច​ពេល​នេះ​ក្ដី ក៏​ប៉ុន្តែ​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​នៃ​ប្រទេស​ទាំង​ពីរ​នេះ​ក៏​មិន​មាន​ភាព​រលូន​ដូច​បណ្ដា​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​ជាមួយ​ប្រទេស​ដទៃ​ទៀត (​មួយ​ចំនួន​) ឡើយ​។ បញ្ហា​ចេះ​តែ​មាន​ឥត​ហូរ​ហែ​ ជា​ពិសេស​ការ​ដែល​កម្ពុជា​ជំពាក់​ប្រាក់​អាមេរិក​នា​សម័យ​សង្គ្រាម ដែល​កម្ពុជា [ត្រូវ​តែ​សង] អាមេរិក​។ ពិត​មែន​ហើយ អាមេរិក​មិន​មែន​ចេះ​តែ​យល់​ស្រប​អ្វី​លំ​ៗ​យក​តែ​ល្អ​មើល​នោះ​ទេ​។ បើ​ទោះ​បី​ជា​មាន​អ្នក​ខ្លះ ឬ​ប្រទេស​ខ្លះ​មិន​ចូល​ចិត្ដ​ក្ដី ក៏​ប៉ុន្តែ​មនុស្ស ឬ​ប្រទេស​ទាំង​នោះ មិន​អាច​ជៀស​ឆ្ងាយ​ពី​អាមេរិក​បាន​ទេ​។ នេះ​ជា​តថ​ភាព​ដែល​ត្រូវ​ទទួល​ស្គាល់​ ហើយ​ថា​ល្បែង «​មាន​អញ​អត់​អ្ហែង​» ពិត​ជា​មិន​ងាយ​លេង​នោះ​ទេ ជាមួយ​អាមេរិក​​។

បន្ទាប់​ពី​បញ្ហា​នយោបាយ​ដ៏​តាន​តឹង​កើត​មាន​ឡើង​នៅ​ស្រុក​ខ្មែរ​យ៉ាង​ប្រកៀក​ប្រកិត​គ្នា​ដូច​គ្រាប់​ពោត​នា​ដើម​ខែ​កញ្ញា ឆ្នាំ​២០១៧ នេះ​មក​ ជា​ពិសេស​ការ​ចោទ​ប្រកាន់​ពី​ទំនាក់​ទំនង អ្វី​ដែល​គេ​ហៅ​ថា «​បដិវត្តន៍​ពណ៌​» ទៅ​នឹង​សហ​រដ្ឋ​អាមេរិក​នោះ អាមេរិក​បាន​សម្ដែង​ការ​ព្រួយ​បារម្ភ​ពី​វោហារ​សព្ទ​​ [យ៉ាង​គួរ​ឲ្យ​ខ្លាច] ពី​សំណាក់​អ្នក​ដឹក​នាំ​ខ្មែរ ហើយ​ក៏​បាន​ធ្វើ​សេចក្ដី​ថ្លែង​ការណ៍​យ៉ាង​វែង​អន្លាយ​មួយ​តាម​រយៈ​ឯក​អគ្គ​រដ្ឋ​ទូត​របស់​ខ្លួន​នៅ​កម្ពុជា ស្ដី​អំពី​បរិយាកាស​នយោបាយ​នៅ​កម្ពុជា កាល​ពី​ថ្ងៃ​អង្គារ (​១២ កញ្ញា ២០១៧​) កន្លង​មក​នេះ​។

ភ្លាម​រំពេច នា​ថ្ងៃ​នេះ លោក​នាយក​រដ្ឋ​មន្ត្រី​កម្ពុជា បាន​បញ្ចេញ​ចំណាត់​ការ​យ៉ាង​ច្រើន ដែល​ត្រូវ​បាន​គេ​មើល​ឃើញ​ថា រឹត​តែ​ធ្វើ​ឲ្យ​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​កម្ពុជា អាមេរិក រឹត​តែ​តាន​តឹង​ឡើង​ដល់​កម្រិត​អតិ​បរមា​។ ការ​ប្រកាស​ផ្អាក​កិច្ច​សហ​ប្រតិបត្តិការ​រុក​រក​ឆ្អឹង​ទាហាន​អាមេរិក ដែល​បាត់​បង់​ជីវិត​នៅ​ក្នុង​សង្គ្រាម​នៅ​កម្ពុជា កាល​ពី​ទសវត្សរ៍​ឆ្នាំ​៧០​, ការ​ប្រកាស​ឲ្យ​ដក​​ភ្នាក់​ងារ​ភីស​ខ័រ (United States Peace Corps Cambodia) សហ​រដ្ឋ​អាមេរិក​នៅ​កម្ពុជា, ការ​ប្រកាស​ឲ្យ​ប្រជា​ជន (​ខ្មែរ​) ក្រោក​​ឈរ​ឡើង​ប្រកាន់​គោល​​នយោបាយ​ជាតិ​និយម​ប្រឆាំង​ការ​ជ្រៀត​ជ្រែក​ពី​បរទេស (​អាមេរិក​)​…​។ល។ សុទ្ធ​សឹង​ត្រូវ​បាន​គេ​មើល​ឃើញ​ថា​ជា​ការ​វិវត្ត​ថយ​ក្រោយ​នៃ​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​ការ​ទូត​រវាង​កម្ពុជា និង​សហ​រដ្ឋ​អាមេរិក​ ឬ​អាច​ថា​ជា​ចំណុច​ចាប់​ផ្ដើម​ឈាន​ទៅ​រក​អវសាន​នៃ​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​ការ​ទូត​រវាង​សហ​រដ្ឋ​អាមេរិក និង​កម្ពុជា​។

អ្វី​ៗ​សុទ្ធ​តែ​អាច​កើត​ឡើង​បាន​ទាំង​អស់​។ កម្ពុជា​ កាល​ពី​អតីត​ធ្លាប់​បាន​ផ្ដាច់​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​ការ​ទូត​ជាមួយ​សហ​រដ្ឋ​អាមេរិក​ម្ដង​រួច​មក​ហើយ​។ ហើយ​បើ​ពិនិត្យ​មើល​ស្ថាន​ភាព​បច្ចុប្បន្ន​នេះ​វា​គ្មាន​អ្វី​អះ​អាង​ថា​នឹង​មិន​អាច​កើត​ឡើង​ជា​លើក​ទី​២​នោះ​ទេ​​។ ទោះ​បី​ជា​យ៉ាង​នេះ​ក្ដី ទេសៈ​កាលៈ​រវាង​ឆ្នាំ​២០១៧ និង​ទសវត្សរ៍​៦០ ទំនង​ជា​មិន​ដូច​គ្នា​ទេ ជា​ពិសេស​បរិយាកាស​​ប្រទេស​នៅ​ក្នុង​តំបន់​។ ហេតុ​ដូច​នេះ​កម្ពុជា​គួរ​ដើរ​យ៉ាង​ប្រុង​ប្រយ័ត្ន ជា​ពិសេស​ភាព​ប្រថុយ​ប្រថាន​ក្នុង​ការ​ធ្វើ​ឲ្យ​សភាព​ការណ៍​នៃ​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​ការ​ទូត​មាន​ភាព​តាន​តឹង​ជាង​នេះ ឬ​ឈាន​ទៅ​រក​ការ​ផ្ដាច់​ទំនាក់​ទំនង​​ការ​ទូត​រវាង​ប្រទេស​ទាំង​ពីរ​​នោះ​៕

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អាន​ផង​ដែរ​៖
១. ស្ថាន​ទូត​អាមេរិក ប្រចាំ​កម្ពុជា ចេញ​សេចក្ដី​ថ្លែង​ការណ៍​ស្ដី​អំពី​បច្ចុប្បន្ន​ភាព​បរិយាកាស​នយោបាយ​នៅ​កម្ពុជា
២. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​៖ Visa Restrictions on Individuals Responsible for Undermining Cambodian Democracy
៣. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​៖ សេចក្ដី​ប្រកាស​របស់​អ្នក​នាំ​ពាក្យ​នៃ​ក្រសួង​ការ​បរទេស និង​សហ​ប្រតិបត្តិការ​អន្តរជាតិ នៃ​ព្រះ​រាជាណាចក្រ​កម្ពុជា
៤. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ​៖ សេចក្តីប្រកាស​របស់​រដ្ឋ​មន្រ្តីទទួល​បន្ទុក​ផ្នែក​សារ​ព័ត៌មាន ស្តី​អំពី​ការ​កាត់​បន្ថយជំនួយ​ដល់​រដ្ឋាភិបាល​កម្ពុជា

ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ Cambodia: EU launches procedure to temporarily suspend trade preferences ថ្ងៃចន្ទ 11 ខែ​កុម្ភៈ 2019

Posted by សុភ័ក្ត្រ in ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ, អំពីស្រុកខ្មែរ, English.
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European Commission – Press release

Cambodia: EU launches procedure to temporarily suspend trade preferences

Brussels, 11 February 2019

The EU has today started the process that could lead to the temporary suspension of Cambodia’s preferential access to the EU market under the Everything But Arms (EBA) trade scheme. EBA preferences can be removed if beneficiary countries fail to respect core human rights and labour rights.

Launching the temporary withdrawal procedure does not entail an immediate removal of tariff preferences, which would be the option of last resort. Instead, it kicks off a period of intensive monitoring and engagement. The aim of the Commission’s action remains to improve the situation for the people on the ground.

High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Vice President of the European Commission Federica Mogherini said: “Over the last eighteen months, we have seen the deterioration of democracy, respect for human rights and the rule of law in Cambodia. In February 2018, the EU Foreign Affairs Ministers made clear how seriously the EU views these developments. In recent months, the Cambodian authorities have taken a number of positive steps, including the release of political figures, civil society activists and journalists and addressing some of the restrictions on civil society and trade union activities.However, without more conclusive action from the government, the situation on the ground calls Cambodia’s participation in the EBA scheme into question. As the European Union, we are committed to a partnership with Cambodia that delivers for the Cambodian people. Our support for democracy and human rights in the country is at the heart of this partnership.”

EU Commissioner for Trade Cecilia Malmström said: “It should be clear that today’s move is neither a final decision nor the end of the process. But the clock is now officially ticking and we need to see real action soon. We now go into a monitoring and evaluation process in which we are ready to engage fully with the Cambodian authorities and work with them to find a way forward. When we say that the EU’s trade policy is based on values, these are not just empty words. We are proud to be one of the world’s most open markets for least developed countries and the evidence shows that exporting to the EU Single Market can give a huge boost to their economies. Nevertheless, in return we ask that these countries respect certain core principles. Our engagement with the situation in Cambodia has led us to conclude that there are severe deficiencies when it comes to human rights and labour rights in Cambodia that the government needs to tackle if it wants to keep its country’s privileged access to our market.”

Following a period of enhanced engagement, including a fact-finding mission to Cambodia in July 2018 and subsequent bilateral meetings at the highest level, the Commission has concluded that there is evidence of serious and systematic violations of core human rights and labour rights in Cambodia, in particular of the rights to political participation as well as of the freedoms of assembly, expression and association. These findings add to the longstanding EU concerns about the lack of workers’ rights and disputes linked to economic land concessions in the country.

Today’s decision will be published in the EU Official Journal on 12 February, kicking off a process that aims to arrive at a situation in which Cambodia is in line with its obligations under the core UN and ILO Conventions:

– a six-month period of intensive monitoring and engagement with the Cambodian authorities;

– followed by another three-month period for the EU to produce a report based on the findings;

– after a total of twelve months, the Commission will conclude the procedure with a final decision on whether or not to withdraw tariff preferences; it is also at this stage that the Commission will decide the scope and duration of the withdrawal. Any withdrawal would come into effect after a further six-month period.

High Representative/Vice-President Mogherini and Commissioner Malmström launched the internal process to initiate this procedure on 4 October 2018. Member States gave their approval to the Commission proposal to launch the withdrawal procedure at the end of January 2019.

Background

The Everything But Arms arrangement is one arm of the EU’s Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP), which allows vulnerable developing countries to pay fewer or no duties on exports to the EU, giving them vital access to the EU market and contributing to their growth. The EBA scheme unilaterally grants duty-free and quota-free access to the European Union for all products (except arms and ammunition) for the world’s Least Developed Countries, as defined by the United Nations. The GSP Regulation provides that trade preferences may be suspended in case of “serious and systematic violation of principles” laid down in the human rights and labour rights Conventions listed in Annex VIII of the Regulation.

Exports of textiles and footwear, prepared foodstuffs and vegetable products (rice) and bicycles represented 97% of Cambodia’s overall exports to the EU in 2018. Out of the total exports of € 4.9bn, 99% (€ 4.8bn) were eligible to EBA preferential duties.

For More Information

MEMO: EU triggers procedure to temporarily suspend trade preferences for Cambodia

Trade relations with Cambodia

Generalised Scheme of Preferences

http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-19-882_en.htm

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អាន​ផង​ដែរ​៖
១. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ សេចក្ដី​ថ្លែង​ការណ៍​របស់​រាជ​រដ្ឋាភិបាល​កម្ពុជា​ឆ្លើយ​តប​នឹង​ការ​​សម្រេច​ចិត្ត​របស់​គណៈ​កម្មការ​អឺរ៉ុប​​ក្នុង​ការ​បើក​ដំណើរ​ការ​នីតិ​វិធី​ផ្លូវ​ការ​​សម្រាប់​ការ​ដក​ជា​បណ្ដោះ​អាសន្ន​​​នូវ​ប្រព័ន្ធ​អនុ​គ្រោះ​ពន្ធ​ «​គ្រប់​មុខ​ទំនិញ​លើក​លែង​តែ​គ្រឿង​​សព្វា​វុធ (EBA)» ពី​កម្ពុជា
២. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ សេចក្ដី​ប្រកាស​ព័ត៌មាន​អំពី​សេចក្ដី​សម្រេច​របស់​គណៈ​កម្មការ​អឺរ៉ុប​ប្រកាស​អំពី​ដំណើរ​ការ​នីតិ​វិធី​ឈាន​ទៅ​ពិនិត្យ​លទ្ធភាព​ព្យួរ​ជា​បណ្ដោះ​អាសន្ន​នូវ​ប្រព័ន្ធ​អនុ​គ្រោះ​ពន្ធ​ក្រោម​កម្ម​វិធី «​គ្រប់​មុខ​ទំនិញ​លើក​លែង​តែ​សព្វា​វុធ (EBA)»

“พระแก้วมรกต” จากวัดพระแก้วฯในพระราชวังหลวง พนมเปญ กับมูลค่าวัสดุในพระวิหาร ថ្ងៃអង្គារ 29 ខែមករា 2019

Posted by សុភ័ក្ត្រ in អំពីស្រុកខ្មែរ, ภาษาไทย.
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วัดพระแก้วมรกต ในพระบรมราชวังจตุมุขมงคล กัมพูชา (ภาพจากหนังสือ “เขมรสมัยหลังพระนคร”)

พระบรมราชวังจตุมุขมงคล กรุงพนมเปญ มีสถานที่สำคัญหลายแห่ง ในบรรดารายชื่อนี้มี “วัดพระแก้วมรกต” หรือ “วัดอุโบสถรตนาราม” เป็นวัดที่ตั้งอยู่ในพระราชวัง ซึ่งมีพระพุทธรูป “พระแก้วมรกต” ประดิษฐานบนบุษบก

เมืองพนมเปญ (หรือชื่อเก่าว่า “เมืองจตุมุข”) เป็นเมืองสำคัญทางยุทธศาสตร์ของกัมพูชา สมัยก่อนมีเจ้าพญายาตและกษัตริย์องค์ต่อมาใช้เมืองนี้เป็นราชธานี ขณะที่พระราชวังจตุมุขมงคลนี้สร้างตั้งแต่ พ.ศ. 2408 ในรัชกาลสมเด็จพระเจ้านโรดิมบรมรามเทวาวตาร (ครองราชย์ พ.ศ. 2403-2447) และปรับปรุงเปลี่ยนหลายครั้งในเวลาต่อมา ผศ.ดร. ศานติ ภักดีคำ อธิบายในหนังสือ “เขมรสมัยหลังพระนคร” ว่า ปีนั้นเป็นปีที่สมเด็จพระนโรดมเริ่มเสด็จมาประทับที่พระราชวังพัก กรุงพนมเปญ

อีกหนึ่งสิ่งก่อสร้างสำคัญในพระบรมราชวังจตุมุขมงคล คือ “วัดพระแก้วมรกต” หรือ “วัดอุโบสถรตนาราม” ผศ.ดร. ศานติ บรรยายว่า เป็นวัดในพระราชวังหลวงเช่นเดียวกับวัดพระศรีสรรเพชญ์ วัดในพระราชวังหลวงของกรุงศรีอยุธยา หรือวัดพระศรีรัตนศาสดารามในพระบรมมหาราชวัง กรุงเทพฯ

การออกแบบแผนผังวัดพระแก้วมรกตเป็นฝีมือของออกญาเทพนิมิต (รส) มีสถาปนิกชาวฝรั่งเศสชื่อ Alavigne ดูแลความถูกต้องในการสร้าง สถาปนิกชาวฝรั่งเศสนาม Andrilleux และช่างเขมรเป็นผู้ก่อสร้างและประดับตกแต่งจนแล้วเสร็จสมโภช เมื่อ พ.ศ. 2446 ผศ.ดร. ศานติ อ้างอิงข้อมูลจากฝั่งกัมพูชาว่า คิดเป็นเงินทั้งหมดห้าแสนเรียล

เมื่อถึงสมัยสมเด็จพระนโรดมสีหนุ วัดพระแก้วมรกตถูกบูรณะ เมื่อปี 2505 – 2513 โดยปกติแล้ว วัดในพระบรมราชวังแห่งนี้ไม่มีพระสงฆ์จำพรรษา แต่มีเฉพาะช่วงที่สมเด็จพระนโรดมสีหนุทรงผนวช พระองค์ประทับจำพรรษา 1 พรรษา

สิ่งก่อสร้างภายในบริเวณวัดล้วนมีความสำคัญเฉพาะตัว อาทิ พระวิหารพระแก้วมรกต เป็นที่ประดิษฐานพระแก้วมรกต พระวิหารสร้างขึ้นในสมัยสมเด็จพระนโรดมบรมรามเทวาวตาร แรกเริ่มสร้างจากไม้และอิฐ แต่เมื่อมีการบูรณะในภายหลังจึงเริ่มปรับเปลี่ยนหลายครั้งโดยรักษารูปแบบทางสถาปัตยกรรมเดิมไว้

องค์ประกอบที่น่าสนใจในวัดนี้ไม่ใช่มีแค่เชิงโครงสร้าง ผศ.ดร.ศานติ อธิบายรายละเอียดว่า พื้นของพระวิหารปูเสื่อที่ทำจากเงินบริสุทธิ์ 5,329 แผ่น แต่ละแผ่นมีน้ำหนัก 1,125 กิโลกรัม ประดับหินอ่อนนำเข้าจากอิตาลี รวมแล้วเป็นเงินทั้งหมด 20 ล้านเรียล

ขณะที่พระพุทธรูป “พระแก้วมรกต” ที่ประดิษฐานบนบุษบก ผู้เชี่ยวชาญด้านวัฒนธรรมอธิบายว่า หล่อขึ้นจากแก้วคริสตัลสีเขียวจากฝรั่งเศส โดยอ้างอิงจากข้อมูลใน “นิราศนครวัด” พระนิพนธ์ในกรมพระยาดำรงราชานุภาพ ข้อความตอนหนึ่งว่า

“กลางพระอุโบสถ มีฐานชุกชีตั้งบุษบกรองพระแก้วที่ห้างปักกะราต์ฝรั่งเศส ข้อนี้ทราบมานานแล้ว มาได้ความรู้เพิ่มเติมเมื่อเห็นตัวจริงว่าตั้งใจจะจำลองให้เหมือนพระแก้วมรกตที่ในกรุงเทพฯ สมเด็จพระนโรดมเห็นจะให้ไปสืบและวัดมาดู ได้ขนาดเท่ากัน แต่รูปสัณฐานนั้นผิดกันห่างไกล สีแก้วมรกตที่ฝรั่งหล่อเขียวใสเป็นอย่างขวดเขียวสี่เหลี่ยม ที่มักใช้ใส่น้ำอบกันแต่ก่อน เครื่องประดับก็ทำแต่ทองครอบพระเกตุมาลา และติดรัศมีต่อขึ้นไปสองข้างบุษบก ตั้งลับแลแบ่งปันที่เป็นข้างหน้าในอย่างวัดพระศรีรัตนศาสดารามในกรุงเทพฯ…”

ในพระวิหารพระแก้วมรกตยังมีพระพุทธรูป “พระชินรังสีราชิกนโรดม” ฉลองพระองค์สมเด็จพระนโรดมบรมรามเทวาวตาร ผศ.ดร. ศานติ อธิบายว่า สร้างขึ้นเมื่อ พ.ศ. 2447 โดยสมเด็จพระศรีสวัสดิ์ (สีสุวัตถิ์) ตามพระราชดำรัสของสมเด็จพระนโรดมบรมรามเทวาวตาร ช่วงก่อนพระองค์ทิวงคต

พระพุทธรูปองค์นี้สร้างจากทองคำ 90 กิโลกรัมนับรวมทั้งฐานและฉัตร ประดับเพชรพลอย 2,086 เม็ด เพชรเม็ดใหญ่ที่สุดอยู่ที่มงกุฎมีขนาด 25 มิลลิเมตร ซึ่งกรมพระยาดำรงราชานุภาพทรงบรรยายว่า แต่งเครื่องเพชรพลอยอย่างใหม่ ฝีมือฝรั่ง ซึ่งเป็นของสมเด็จพระนโรดมทรงพระอุทิศไว้ ฝีมือสร้างงดงาม



อ้างอิง:

ศานติ ภักดีคำ. เขมรสมัยหลังพระนคร. กรุงเทพฯ : มติชน, 2556

https://www.silpa-mag.com/art/article_26843?fbclid=IwAR10cIzeBQXnsmzinsTTCDZGTbm3ODxmj9MzLCT1qoaAE7xE5YEjHL_OhDk

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