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Cambodia loses duty-free access to the EU market over human rights concerns ថ្ងៃពុធ 12 ខែសីហា 2020

Posted by សុភ័ក្ត្រ in ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ, English.
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As of today, 12 August, some of Cambodia’s typical export products such as garments, footwear and travel goods are subject to the European Union’s customs duties. The EU’s decision to partially withdraw Cambodia’s duty-free quota-free access to the EU market is now effective. The preferential treatment enjoyed by Cambodia under “Everything But Arms” (EBA) – the EU’s trade arrangement for Least Developed Countries – is now temporarily lifted due to serious and systematic concerns related to human rights ascertained in the country. The EU enforces this measure while staying open to engage with Cambodia on the necessary reforms.

Commissioner for Trade Phil Hogan said: “We have provided Cambodia with trade opportunities that let the country develop an export-oriented industry and gave jobs to thousands of Cambodians. We stand by their side also now in the difficult circumstances caused by the pandemic. Nonetheless, our continued support does not diminish the urgent need for Cambodia to respect human rights and labour rights. I stand ready to continue our engagement and to restore fully free access to the EU market for products from Cambodia provided we see substantial improvement in that respect.

The withdrawal of preferential access to the EU market concerns approximately 20% of Cambodia’s exports to the EU. Cambodia may still export those products to the EU but they will be subject to general tariffs applicable to any other member of the World Trade Organization. The remaining 80% of Cambodia’s exports continue to enjoy preferential (duty-free, quota-free) access to the EU market.

The Commission, together with the European External Action Service (EEAS), will continue its enhanced engagement with Cambodia. The EU will keep on monitoring the situation in the country, with a particular focus on current restrictions in the areas of freedom of expression and civil and political rights, as well as land disputes and labour rights in the context of the ongoing reforms.

The EU is aware of the significant impact of the coronavirus pandemic on Cambodia’s economy and employment and stands ready to support the country in its fight against the coronavirus crisis and towards economic recovery. This, however, does not waive the urgent need to ensure respect for human rights and labour rights in Cambodia.

Since February 2020, when the EU’s decision on partial withdrawal was taken, the Cambodian Government could at any time have taken the necessary steps to fulfil the conditions allowing the European Union to fully restore EBA preferential access to the EU market. This remains the case.

The Cambodian authorities should take action to restore political freedoms in the country, to re-establish the necessary conditions for a credible, democratic opposition and to initiate a process of national reconciliation through genuine and inclusive dialogue. The Commission and the EEAS have outlined the necessary actions to the Cambodian authorities on numerous occasions, as well as in the Commission’s Delegated Regulation. Actions include the reinstatement of the political rights of opposition members and the repeal or revision of laws, such as the Law on Political Parties and the Law on Non-Governmental Organisations. If the government of Cambodia shows significant progress, particularly on civil and political rights, the Commission may review its decision and reinstate tariff preferences under the “Everything But Arms” arrangement, in line with the provisions of the EU Generalised Scheme of Preferences.

Background

The “Everything But Arms” (EBA) arrangement is part of the EU’s Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP). The GSP allows vulnerable developing countries to benefit from lower duties or duty-free exports to the EU, and hence stimulate their economic growth. It is a one-way arrangement: it does not require reciprocity vis-a-vis EU exports. Through the EBA arrangement, the EU grants duty-free and quota-free access to its market for all products – except arms and ammunition – from Least Developed Countries (as defined by the United Nations). Under the GSP Regulation, tariff preferences may be suspended in the case of “serious and systematic violation of principles” laid down in the international human rights and labour rights conventions listed in an annex to the GSP Regulation.

Based on serious concerns about the deterioration of political, human, land and labour rights in Cambodia, in February 2019, the Commission opened a procedure for a withdrawal of the EBA preferences granted to Cambodia. On 12 November 2019, the Commission submitted to Cambodia a report demonstrating serious and systematic violations of key principles of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) linked to political participation, freedom of expression and freedom of association in Cambodia. At the same time, despite remaining serious concerns, the report underlined tangible progress in solving land disputes in the sugar sector and with respect to labour rights. Following a period for comments, on 12 February 2020, the Commission adopted a Delegated Regulation on a temporary and partial withdrawal of tariff preferences granted to Cambodia under the EBA. The Regulation entered into force on 25 April 2020 and takes effect as of 12 August 2020.

For More Information

EU Everything But Arms trade preferences
EU-Cambodia trade relations

https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/IP_20_1469

A Personal Reflection on Norodom Sihanouk and Zhou Enlai: An Extraordinary Friendship on the Fringes of the Cold War ថ្ងៃសៅរ៍ 9 ខែ​ឧសភា 2020

Posted by សុភ័ក្ត្រ in បុគ្គល​សំខាន់, English.
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Julio A. Jeldres, Monash University

I was sixteen years old when I first read about Norodom Sihanouk and Cambodia. Jacqueline Kennedy’s visit to Cambodia in November 1967 had been widely reported by the press in my homeland, Chile, where her assassinated husband was greatly admired. Through Jackie Kennedy’s visit to Cambodia, I became interested in Norodom Sihanouk’s fascinating life, totally unaware that, years later, our paths would cross and I would become his private secretary. My Cambodian friends often tell me that it was my destiny. In 1967, I wanted to know more about Cambodia. Since there was no information available, I wrote to the Cambodian mission at the United Nations. I found it unbelievable, but four months later I received a handwritten letter back from Sihanouk himself. That began our friendship, which was first conducted through correspondence.1

After Sihanouk was deposed in March 1970, I discovered that the local New China News Agency branch in Santiago, Chile, carried copies in Spanish of all of Sihanouk’s statements made in the Chinese capital a day earlier. It didn’t seem to make sense that a Communist regime would extend such courtesies to a former monarch. This led me to one aspect of Sihanouk’s political life that I found especially intriguing: his association with Chinese premier Zhou Enlai. This relationship seemed to be a very special one between the head of state of a Buddhist kingdom and the prime minister of a Communist state. As a novice in international affairs, I knew little about how relationships operated between states, yet it still seemed strange to me that a ruler who claimed to be descended from the kings of Angkor had a unique relationship with the political leader of a country ideologically opposed to monarchical government.

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១. ៦០​ឆ្នាំ​នៃ​ដំណើរ​ទស្សនកិច្ច​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ​លើក​ទី​២ របស់​​ឯក​ឧត្ដម ជូ អេនឡាយ នៅ​កម្ពុជា
២. សេចក្ដី​ថ្លែង​ការណ៍​រួម ចិន​-​កម្ពុជា ៨ ឧសភា ១៩៦០

ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ សេចក្ដី​ថ្លែង​ការណ៍​រួម ចិន​-​កម្ពុជា ៨ ឧសភា ១៩៦០ ថ្ងៃសុក្រ 8 ខែ​ឧសភា 2020

Posted by សុភ័ក្ត្រ in ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ, English.
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thany

thany

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អាន​ផង​ដែរ ៖

១. ៦០​ឆ្នាំ​នៃ​ដំណើរ​ទស្សនកិច្ច​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ​លើក​ទី​២ របស់​​ឯក​ឧត្ដម ជូ អេនឡាយ នៅ​កម្ពុជា
២. A Personal Reflection on Norodom Sihanouk and Zhou Enlai: An Extraordinary Friendship on the Fringes of the Cold War

ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ Sihanouk’s Mother Mourned at Rites In Chinese Capital ថ្ងៃអង្គារ 5 ខែ​ឧសភា 2020

Posted by សុភ័ក្ត្រ in បុគ្គល​សំខាន់, ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ, English.
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PEKING, May 4(Agence France‐Presse)—Prince Norodom Sihanouk, the Cambodian Chief of State, lit the funeral pyre today to cremate the body of his mother, Queen Sisowath Kossamak, at a Buddhist ceremony attended by high‐ranking Chinese, Vietnamese and North Koreans.

The queen died a week ago in’. Peking after a long illness. She was 71 years old. Prince Sihanouk earlier indicated he would return to Cambodia to place her ashes at Angkor, one of Cambodia’s most sacred places.

The Chinese Government was represented by Deputy Premiers Li Hsieh‐nien and Chen Hsi‐lien. Special aircraft brought Deputy Premier Phan Trong Tue of North Vietnam, Nguyen Van Kiet, Vice President of the South Vietnamese Revolutionary Government, and Vice President Rang Ryang Uk of North Korea to Peking for the funeral, which was held at the Pa Ta Chu pagoda on the outskirts of the Chinese capital.

There was no representative, however, from the Cambodian administration in Phnom Penh.

The Queen’s pyre was surrounded by low brick walls that hid all but the upper part of a gilded wooden coffin, which lay beneath a wooden pagoda‐like canopy. The Prince and Princess Monique and members of their retinue wore white, the color of mourning in Southeast Asia.

They placed flowers carved from sandalwood chips on the coffin, as did the Chinese representatives and diplomats attending the funeral. The ceremony, which was held without prayers or music, ended with a minute of silence.

Some diplomatic observers here were beginning to ask whether Prince Sihanouk might be deliberately delaying his return to Cambodia because of reports filtering out of the country that the situation was far from normal in Phnom Penh and in other large towns.

www.nytimes.com

ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ Queen Mother of Cambodia Dies in Peking ថ្ងៃអង្គារ 28 ខែ​មេសា 2020

Posted by សុភ័ក្ត្រ in បុគ្គល​សំខាន់, ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ, English.
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asdUntitlsaded-2

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អាន​ផង​ដែរ ៖
១. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ CAMBODIAN QUEEN IS DEAD IN PEKING

ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ CAMBODIAN QUEEN IS DEAD IN PEKING ថ្ងៃចន្ទ 27 ខែ​មេសា 2020

Posted by សុភ័ក្ត្រ in បុគ្គល​សំខាន់, ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ, English.
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PEKING, April 27 (Reuters)—Queen Mother Kossamak of Cambodia, 71‐year‐old mother of Prince Norodom Sihanouk, died here today with her son at her bedside, an official announcement said.

The announcement did not give funeral details or mention the Prince’s possible return to Cambodia.

Prince Sihanouk,” last week named chief of state for life by the new government set up ofter the capture of Phnom Penh 10 days ago, had delayed his return to his homeland to share his mother’s last days.

The Prince, who, is 52 years old, said a few days ago that when his mother died he would carry her ashes back to Siem Reap in northern Cambodia.

Joined Son in 1973

The Queen was left behind in Phnom Penh following the coup, that ousted Prince Sihanouk in 1970. Her health failing, she; was allowed to join her son in exile here in 1973.

For some months she stayed in the gentler climate of southern China before moving up to Peking to live with her son in an elegant residence provided by the Chinese Government.

Queen Mother Kossamak, whose great passion was classical dance, looked cheerful when she celebrated her 71st birthday at a glittering party last October.

But her illness, apparently heart trouble, cast a shadow over Prince Sihanouk’s celebration of the Communist victory in Phnom Penh.

In a recent communiqué he revealed that he had asked the authorities to prepare an air strip at Siem Reap so that he could fly there with his mother’s ashes.

An Influential Queen

Queen Sisowath Kossamak, long a symbol of monarchy in Cambodia, was believed to have exerted considerable influence over her son, Prince Sihanouk, whose rights to the throne stemmed from her father.

Although Queen Kossamak’s father, King Monivong, had had two direct male heirs, his 19‐year‐old grandson, Prince Sihanouk, was named his successor in an act designed to unite two branches Of the royal family that had been divided. That was in 1941, and Queen Kossamak became the young king’s leading adviser.

On March 3, 1955, after the small kingdom gained complete independence from France, Prince Sihanouk stepped down from the throne to enter politics and become Cambodia’s spokesman in world affairs. He assumed the role of Premier and his parents, King Norodom Suramarit and Queen Kossamak, jointly succeeded him on the throne.

After King Suramarit’s death in 1960, Queen Kossamak continued to perform the ceremonial functions of the monarchy, while Prince Sihanouk became Chief of State, without succeeding his father as king.

Queen Criticized

In 1965 indigation over magazine article critical of the Queen Mother touched off an attack on the United States Embassy in Phnom Penh by 20,000 Cambodian students who hurled rocks at the building and tore down the American flag.

The article, published in Newsweek magazine, quoted sources in Phnom Penh as having said that the Queen was “money‐mad and reportedly runs a number of concessions in town, plus a string of bordellos at the edge of the city.”

In May, a month after the article appeared, Prince Sihanouk announced that his Government had severed diplomatic ties with the United States. In explaining his decision, the Prince cited an attack by the South Vietnamese air force on two Cambodian border villages and the comments in Newsweek about his mother. The article had already led the Phnom Penh Government to bar almost all journalists and photographers of the “so‐called free world” from the country.

www.nytimes.com

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១. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ Queen Mother of Cambodia Dies in Peking

វិបាក​កូវីដ-១៩ ៖ វិធាន​ការ​រឹត​បន្តឹង​ការ​ធ្វើដំណើររបស់​រាជ​រដ្ឋាភិបាល​កម្ពុជា ពាក់​ព័ន្ធ​នឹង​ជំងឺ​កូរ៉ូណា (កូវីដ-១៩) ថ្ងៃសុក្រ 27 ខែ​មីនា 2020

Posted by សុភ័ក្ត្រ in អំពីស្រុកខ្មែរ, English.
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