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វិបាក​កូវីដ-១៩ ៖ វិធាន​ការ​រឹត​បន្តឹង​ការ​ធ្វើដំណើររបស់​រាជ​រដ្ឋាភិបាល​កម្ពុជា ពាក់​ព័ន្ធ​នឹង​ជំងឺ​កូរ៉ូណា (កូវីដ-១៩) ថ្ងៃសុក្រ 27 ខែ​មីនា 2020

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Sisowath: the cremation of a King ថ្ងៃអង្គារ 10 ខែ​មីនា 2020

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9pm, Friday, March 11th 1928, the Royal Palace, Phnom Penh. Monsieur Le Fol, the French Résident Supérieur of Cambodia, stood, glass in hand, to begin his speech. It was a sombre and formal occasion, the final event of ten days of ceremonies to commemorate the death of King Sisowath. Opposite Le Fol, along an extended dining table, sat the newly-crowned King Monivong, flanked by the wives of high ranking French officials. Among the other 43 guests were Phnom Penh’s Mayor, Monsieur Silvestre, Monsieur Outrey, delegate of Cambodia in the Conseil Supérieur des Colonies, Princes Phanuvong, Sutharot, Souphanuvong, Suramarith, and longtime Minster of the Palace, Thiounn.

“Today the soul of your august father is finally free of its terrestrial constraints”, pronounced Le Fol, with due pomposity. “His life had been dominated by three great attachments: to his country and its people, to his son, and to France. He recognized in France a prosperous, liberal and generous nation, and that only France’s sincere friendship and loyalty could protect Cambodia from the dangers of an uncertain future.”

Raising his glass to heaven, Le Fol, the supreme colonialist, concluded triumphantly: “to the prosperity and good fortune of Cambodia and the inseparable destiny of our two glorious nations. ”

Préah Bat Samdach Préah Sisowath, son of King Ang-Duong and Queen Peou, entered the world in August 1840 in Bangkok, the younger brother of King Norodom. Having spent his youth in exile in Bangkok and Saigon, he returned to Phnom Penh and obtained the title of Obbareach (second King/designated king) in 1870. The honor was conferred on him by Norodom in recognition of his role in crushing the so-called Poukombo rebellion and the subsequent revolt led by Norodom’s and Sisowath’s third brother Si Votha in the late 1860s. Si Votha continued to challenge his brother’s reign in the following decades. Sisowath seemed temporarily reconciled with his subordinate position as “Vice King”; yet a longlasting peace between these quarrelsome Royal siblings proved impossible.

Norodom and Sisowath were simply too different in character, and their political beliefs exemplified this. Norodom had come to rely on the French protectorate to offset his own personal unpopularity at the beginning of his reign (the result of a punitive taxation policy on Cambodia’s ricefarmers). On the other hand he resisted French attempts to develop Cambodia as a fully-fledged colony. In contrast, Sisowath’s devotion to the French and their cause was never in doubt – so much so that the colonial authorities could hardly wait for him to replace Norodom.

Sisowath’s reign began impressively. Both Battambang and Siem Reap provinces were retrieved from Siam, making him popular with both the peasant mass of Cambodia’s population and its emerging urban elite. He went on to found the The School of Pali, the Cambodian School of Administration, as well as of the Royal Library, where sacred texts and Royal chronicles were safeguarded. A devout Buddhist, he introduced a number of administrative and judicial reforms under French guidance. However his reign was marked by the final and total integration of Cambodia into the French Indochinese Union, an act which inspired a deluge of Europeans seeking trade and profit. There were clear benefits to Cambodia’s economy – the French saw Sisowath’s reign as one of “complete and happy peace”; however the period was not without civil unrest. A peasant uprising in 1916, provoked by high taxation, and repeated rebellions of the Phnong tribes in the province of Kratie somewhat clouded his reign.

Sisowath’s death was not unexpected. He had been in fragile health for some time, and, struck down by a particularly nasty bout of dysentery in July 1927, took his last breath on the afternoon of the 9th of August. Present were the Resident Superior of Cambodia, members of the Council of Ministers, and the Royal family. According to a contemporary source, “it was a bright day, no clouds, but the sky was still dark. The sun was surrounded by three shining circles, as a symbol of veneration in honor of His Majesty on the day when He left this world in order to enter another one”.

The ailing king had been cared for by his favorite daughter, Princess Pindara. As his condition worsened, he was taken to the palace and placed to rest in the chambre d’agonie, behind the throne room. Jeanne Leuba, in her booklet “La Fin d’un Roi Cambodgien”, recounts the events that followed: In the chambre d’agonie, the dying King was placed carefully on a bed. On his chest between folded hands, a small gold case containing areca nut and betel leaf was perched between two candles and incense sticks. The case was an offering to Chedei, the superior one, which the King’s soul would join in the paradise of Indra. Two atiars (ascetics) attired in white entered the chambre d’agonie. Placing themselves on either side of the dying King, they shouted “Buddho Arahan, Buddho Arahan” (Venerable Buddha) into his ears, while the monks recited prayers.

At 4.00pm, August 9, 1927, King Sisowath died. His body was immediately clothed and exhibited on a bed where Royals, ministers, and the European elite paid their last respects. Princes and Princesses as well as the Palace staff – also in white – shaved their heads, while other Cambodians followed the European custom of wearing black armbands. The body was then washed with ceremonial water and perfumed by Princess Pindara, and placed on silver leaf to be prepared for its temporary resting place in a large copper urn.

A large effigy in gold was placed into Sisowath’s mouth – a display to the living that physical matter cannot travel with the soul of the dead, and will therefore survive cremation. Popular belief had it that one could buy one’s way into paradise: the fact that such effigies remain thus becomes an act of generosity on the part of Gods, who would rather leave them behind for the living.

The body was then clothed in a magnificent costume covered with gold jewelry and precious stones. A beautiful emerald adorned the King’s right index finger, while on his left shone an enormous yellow diamond. Perfume was sprayed and incense burnt.

Flowers were laid at the foot of the bed. What followed was more unpleasant. The corpse, by now stiff and swollen, had to be fitted into the ritual position for placement into the large copper urn. This task was left to the krom snom. Having wrapped the King’s body, they then forced his knees to his chest. There was an enormous crack of the bones and rumbling noises from the stomach. The body was placed in calico tissue, his hands surrounding the golden case. It was then wrapped yet again in white silk sheets gathered and tied in a knot above his head. But when the krom snom attempted to place a tiara on Sisowath’s head, King Monivong intervened to adorn the head himself, just as his father had done 24 years before at King Norodom’s funeral. Outside the room, bakous (Brahmans) sounded conches, while inside Monsieur Gichard, the Protectorate’s pharmacist, saturated the body with formaldehyde and sodium chloride, applying modern ingredients to an ancient ritual.

The period of mourning lasted seven months. The King was placed on a seven-storey catafalque, in a white and gold room, awaiting cremation. There were no guards, no candles, no incense. An all-encompassing tranquility within the deserted palace was only interrupted by wailing women bringing meals for the deceased, and chanting monks.

On Friday, March 2, 1928, at 3:00 in the afternoon, Sisowath’s funeral opened to a 21-gun salute. The remains of King Sisowath were carried through the streets of Phnom Penh, accompanied by a procession of musicians, soldiers, officers, monks and Royals. After two hours the body arrived at the Men, a ceremonial tent situated by the National Museum. As the deceased King lay at rest, a spectacular sight unfolded.

In deference to the King’s age, 88 monks recited the Sadapakan, the seven volumes of Buddhist scripture, Resident Le Fol came to salute the urn, while ceremonial staff offered food for the dead King. Bakous blew conches, only to be drowned out by the ritual chanting of the mourners. Outside of the Men, balloons were released and fireworks displayed, followed by Royal dance performances. There were also fireworks and chanting in the nights that followed, while a continuous stream of people paraded through the Men to pay their respects.

The festivities ran from the 2nd until the 11th of March 1928. It was an elaborate affair costing over half a million piastres. Nobody dared to criticize such costs openly, yet a number of the region’s French-language newspapers questioned, sotto voce, the wisdom of such expense for what was, after all, only a funeral. Reports provided a colorful account of these extraordinary ten days, alluding to the details of the procession and its exotic beauty, and only betrayed by the occasional suggestion of cultural arrogance.

Sisowath’s eternal rest was disturbed for the last time on March 9 by yet another 21-gun salute, announcing the imminent lighting of the Royal funeral pyre by King Monivong. A huge crowd of mourners watched the flames slowly consume the Royal body.

Two days later, Phnom Penh’s European community joined Cambodian dignitaries and Royals for a final dinner and ball. They had good reasons to celebrate. Sisowath’s reign had been one of relative prosperity and peace – a golden era of regal authority, unchallenged, as yet, by internal political divisions. In mourning King Sisowath all Cambodians were uniting in a common purpose, a common grief, in a time long past.

https://www.phnompenhpost.com/national/sisowath-cremation-king

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អានផងដែរ
១. ព្រះ​រាជ​ពិធី​បុណ្យ​ព្រះ​បរម​សព​ព្រះ​ករុណា​ព្រះ​បាទ សម្ដេច​ព្រះ​សិរីសុវត្ថិ ព្រះ​ចៅ​ក្រុង​កម្ពុជា
២. កាសអនុស្សាវរីយ៍បុណ្យព្រះមេរុ ព្រះរាជានុកោដ្ឋ
៣. អំពី​ព្រះ​មេរុ នៃ​ព្រះ​ករុណា ព្រះ​បរម​រាជា​នុ​កោដ្ឋ
៤. អំពី​ការ​ថ្វាយ​ព្រះ​ភ្លើង​ព្រះ​បរម​សព​ព្រះ​ករុណា​រាជា​នុកោដ្ឋ
៥. អំពី​ការ​រើស​ព្រះ​បរម​អដ្ឋិ​ព្រះ​ករុណា ព្រះ​បរម​រាជា​នុ​កោដ្ឋ

ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ ៖ សេចក្តីថ្លែងការណ៍របស់ក្រសួងការបរទេស និងសហប្រតិបត្តិការអន្តរជាតិ ស្តីពីសេចក្តីសម្រេចរបស់គណៈកម្មការអឺរ៉ុបពាក់ព័ន្ធនឹងប្រព័ន្ធអនុគ្រោះពន្ធ EBA ថ្ងៃពុធ 12 ខែ​កុម្ភៈ 2020

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អាន​ផង​ដែរ ៖
១. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ ៖ Commission decides to partially withdraw Cambodia’s preferential access to the EU market

ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ ៖ Commission decides to partially withdraw Cambodia’s preferential access to the EU market ថ្ងៃពុធ 12 ខែ​កុម្ភៈ 2020

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The European Commission has decided to withdraw part of the tariff preferences granted to Cambodia under the European Union’s Everything But Arms’ (EBA) trade scheme due to the serious and systematic violations of the human rights principles enshrined in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

The withdrawal of tariff preferences – and their replacement with the EU’s standard tariffs (most favoured nation MFN) – will affect selected garment and footwear products, and all travel goods and sugar. The withdrawal amounts to around one-fifth or €1 billion of Cambodia’s yearly exports to the EU. Unless the European Parliament and the Council object, this will take effect on 12 August 2020.

High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy/Vice-President of the European Commission Josep Borrell said: “The duration, scale and impact of Cambodia’s violations of the rights to political participation and to the freedoms of expression and association left the European Union with no other choice than to partially withdraw trade preferences. The European Union will not stand and watch as democracy is eroded, human rights curtailed, and free debate silenced. Today’s decision reflects our strong commitment to the Cambodian people, their rights, and the country’s sustainable development. For the trade preferences to be reinstated, the Cambodian authorities need to take the necessary measures.”

Commissioner for Trade Phil Hogan said: “The European Union is committed to supporting Cambodia’s economic and social development through trade preferences. However, the respect for human rights is non-negotiable for us. We recognise the progress Cambodia has made, but serious concerns remain. Our aim is that the Cambodian authorities end human rights violations, and we will continue working with them in order to achieve that.”

The Commission’s decision addresses the human rights violations that triggered the procedure, while at the same time preserving the development objective of the EU trade scheme. It recognises the need to continue to support Cambodia’s economic development and diversification of its exports. All emerging industries in Cambodia will continue to enjoy duty-free, quota-free access to the EU market. High value-added garments and certain types of footwear will also continue to enjoy duty-free, quota-free access to the EU market.

The Commission’s decision follows in-depth engagement with the Cambodian government and stakeholders. In particular, during the last twelve months, the Commission and the European External Action Service conducted fact-finding missions to Cambodia and held several meetings with the Cambodian authorities at both technical and political levels.

With regard to civil and political rights, there has been no significant progress since the launch of the EBA withdrawal procedure in February 2019.

The Commission nevertheless recognises the steps taken by the Cambodian authorities, notably in the areas of labour rights and land rights. Serious concerns remain however, including in particular the unresolved civil and criminal cases against trade unionists.

The European Union reiterates to the need for the government of Cambodia to re-open the political space in the country, to create the necessary conditions for the re-establishment of a credible opposition and to initiate a democratic process of national reconciliation through genuine and inclusive dialogue. This includes the reinstatement of the political rights of the opposition members and the repeal/revision of laws, such as the Law on Political Parties and the Law on Associations and Non-Governmental Organisations.

The Commission and the European External Action Service will continue their engagement with the Cambodian authorities and monitor the human rights and labour rights situation in the country closely. In case Cambodia shows significant progress, notably on civil and political rights, the Commission may review its decision and reinstate tariff preferences under the EBA arrangement.

Background

The EU is Cambodia’s largest trading partner, accounting for 45% of Cambodian exports in 2018. Exports to the EU from Cambodia reached €5.4 billion in 2018, more than double the €2.5 billion recorded in 2013. 95.7% of these exports entered the EU market under EBA tariff preferences (i.e. €5.2 billion out of the €5.4 billion in total).

The EBA is one of the preferential trade arrangements under the EU Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP). It grants full duty-free, quota-free access into the EU market for all products except arms and ammunition for countries classified by the United Nations as Least Developed Countries. Access to these preferences comes with the obligation to respect human rights and labour rights.

https://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/press/index.cfm?id=2113&fbclid=IwAR0Po-zlr6nRnyq5kLWsOhMNpgKgok5YifSbIMldAAYlUeVwbifXGe1tFYs

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អាន​ផង​ដែរ ៖
១. ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិសាស្ត្រ ៖ សេចក្តីថ្លែងការណ៍របស់ក្រសួងការបរទេស និងសហប្រតិបត្តិការអន្តរជាតិ ស្តីពីសេចក្តីសម្រេចរបស់គណៈកម្មការអឺរ៉ុបពាក់ព័ន្ធនឹងប្រព័ន្ធអនុគ្រោះពន្ធ EBA

ប្រូប៉ាហ្កានដា ថ្ងៃសុក្រ 3 ខែមករា 2020

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ប្រូប៉ាហ្កានដា ដែល​ភាសា​អង់គ្លេស​សរសេរ​ថា propaganda ទំនង​ជា​​មិន​មាន​ន័យ​សមមូល​នឹង​ភាសា​ខ្មែរ​ទេ​។ អត្ថន័យ​ចម្បង​នៃ​ពាក្យ​ ប្រូប៉ាហ្កានដា នេះ​នៅ​ក្នុង​ភាសា​អង់គ្លេស សំដៅ​លើ​ព័ត៌មាន​, ឬ​ជា​ពិសេស​ដែល​មាន​លក្ខណៈ​លម្អៀង ឬ​ធ្វើ​ឲ្យ​យល់​ខុស ដែល​ជា​ទូទៅ​ត្រូវ​បាន​ប្រើ​ប្រាស់​បម្រើ​ឲ្យ​បុព្វហេតុ​នយោបាយ ឬ​ទស្សនៈ​ណា​មួយ​ ឬ​អាច​សម្រាយ​ដោយ​ខ្លី​ថា ជា​ការ​ឃោសនា​ឲ្យ​ជឿ​។

ពាក្យ​ ប្រូប៉ាហ្កានដា នេះ​ជា​រឿយ​ៗ ត្រូវ​បាន​គេ​ប្រើ​ប្រាស់​ក្នុង​ន័យ​អវិជ្ជមាន​, ជា​ពិសេស​សម្រាប់​អ្នក​នយោបាយ​ដែល​ធ្វើ​ការ​អះអាង​មិន​ត្រឹម​ត្រូវ​ដើម្បី​ឲ្យ​ខ្លួន​ត្រូវ​បាន​គេ​បោះ​ឆ្នោត​ជូន ឬ​ការ​​ផ្សព្ធ​ផ្សាយ​ពាក្យ​ចចាមអារ៉ាម ដើម្បី​សម្រេច​គោល​បំណង​របស់​ខ្លួន​។ ជា​ការ​ពិត​ រាល់​យុទ្ធនាការ​ណា​ក៏​ដោយ ដែល​ប្រើ​ប្រាស់​សម្រាប់​អង្វរ ឬ​សុំ​ចិត្ត​ពី​ប្រជាជាន អាច​រាប់​បាន​ថា​ជា​ ប្រូប៉ាហ្កានដា ទាំង​អស់​។

សម្រាប់​វិស័យ​នយោបាយ​វិញ នៅ​ក្នុង​ប្រទេស​លោក​មិន​សេរី ប្រូប៉ាហ្កានដា ត្រូវ​បាន​គេ​យក​ទៅ​ប្រើ​ប្រាស់​ជា​រឿយ​ៗ​​ស្ទើរ​គ្រប់​វត្ថុ​បំណង​ និង​ជា​ទូទៅ​តែង​បាន​ផល​ផង​​៕

ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ សេចក្តីថ្លែងការណ៍របស់ក្រសួងការបរទេស និងសហប្រតិបត្តិការអន្តរជាតិ ពាក់ព័ន្ធនឹងការ ប្រគល់ជូនគណៈកម្មការអឺរ៉ុប ថ្ងៃ​ព្រហស្បតិ៍ 12 ខែធ្នូ 2019

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ឯកសារ​ប្រវត្តិ​សាស្ត្រ ៖ Cambodia: European Commission finalises preliminary report on temporary suspension of trade preferences ថ្ងៃពុធ 13 ខែវិច្ឆិកា 2019

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CAMBODIA | Brussels, 12 November 2019

Cambodia: European Commission finalises preliminary report on temporary suspension of trade preferences

The European Commission sent today to the authorities of Cambodia a preliminary report outlining the findings of the investigation triggered in February 2019 under the procedure for a possible temporary withdrawal of Everything But Arms (EBA) trade preferences.

The Everything But Arms arrangement is one pillar of the EU’s Generalised Scheme of Preferences, which unilaterally grants duty-free and quota-free access to the European market for all products (except arms and ammunition) from the world’s Least Developed Countries, as defined by the United Nations. These trade preferences may be suspended in case of “serious and systematic violation of principles” laid down in the human rights and labour rights Conventions listed in Annex VIII of the GSP Regulation.

Cambodia is the second-largest beneficiary of EBA trade preferences, accounting for over 18% of all imports coming into the EU market under the EBA scheme in 2018. EU imports from Cambodia totalled €5.3 billion in 2018, 95% of which entered the EU duty-free taking advantage of EBA preferences. Clothing and textiles account for around three quarters of EU imports from Cambodia (€4 billion).

In line with the rules outlined in the regulation on the EU’s Generalised Scheme of Preferences (GSP), Cambodia now has one month to react to this preliminary report. The Commission will then finalise the report and take a decision in February 2020 on whether or not to temporarily withdraw Cambodia’s tariff preferences.

The aim of the procedure is to address human rights and labour rights concerns in Cambodia. While the European Union remains committed to working with the Cambodian authorities on this aim, real and credible improvement on the issues of concern is needed in order to avoid the withdrawal of EBA preferences.

For more information:

Statement by the Spokesperson on the latest developments in Cambodia (11 November 2019)

MEMO: EU triggers procedure to temporarily suspend trade preferences for Cambodia (11 February 2019)

More on trade with Cambodia

More on the Everything but Arms trade preferences

https://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/press/index.cfm?id=2080&utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=facebook

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